When measuring the effects that climate change has had on the planet there are a plethora of useful instruments that scientists have at their disposal. They are also developing new ones as technology ever advances.
NASA is at the forefront of the creation and implementation of such instruments. This is because they are a well funded, trusted institution who are able to launch such measuring devices into orbit.
Their Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols is capable of detecting minute traces of carbon within the atmosphere which allows to better understand the amount of greenhouse gas being emitted from Earth. It is also a useful instrument for determining how toxic the air of a city is. Air pollution, along with climate change is a major world issue that is in dire need of being resolved.
They also have an instrument that measures the intensity of cyclones. Tropical storms are one of the most dangerous consequences of global warming. It is hoped that the device will be able to spot the early development of them which will lead to early actions being taken to prevent damage and loss of life. This instrument has the rather long name of Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats.
These are just two of the instruments being deployed by climate change researchers. This shows that there has been heavy investment in the research and development of such devices. As hardware becomes ever more innovative it is hoped that we will be able to measure the effects of climate change to even more precise degrees.
NASA is just one body of scientists who are working hard to prevent catastrophe. There are many others that are developing their own devices. It is a true testament to the creativity of those in this industry.